How does a turbo work?

How does a Turbo work?

TURBINE
A turbine wheel is driven by the otherwise 'waste' exhaust gases. The turbine is connected to a compressor wheel and the whole assembly rotates at speeds up to 230,000 rpm.

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COMPRESSOR
Ambient air is drawn into the turbo via an air filter, then, as it passes over the compressor wheel it accelerates up to very high speed.

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Once past the compressor wheel it passes through a 'diffuser' which is formed between the face of the backplate (or centre housing) and the machined face of the compressor housing.

As it passes through this area the air moving at high speed slows down and this continues as it passes though the 'volute' of the compressor housing (shaped like a snail's shell!). This turns the Kinetic energy of the moving air into high pressure air.

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Turbocharger Gas & Air Flow

Turbocharger Gas & Air Flow - On Engine

Turbocharger Construction
1 Shaftwheel Assembly
The machined shaft and investment cast turbine wheel are joined by Inertia Welding or Electron Beam Welding

Samples of the weld tested for hardness in heat affected area
Weld penetration checked

2 Centre Housing
Sand castings in various material grades
Tested for porosity and for dimensional accuracy
Bearing bore finish is critical surface
Some use oil squirt hole for additional cooling

3 Thrust assembly - the thrust bearing
Sintered bronze or sintered iron
Many different designs
270 degree or 360 degree

3 Thrust assembly - the thrust collar
Multi function
Controls axial movement
Separates oil and gases (oil thrower or slinger)
Piston ring dynamic seal

Compressor End Dynamic Seal

4 Journal bearings
Most fully floating
Some semi floating

Both designs use two oil films.......................
5 The compressor wheel
Many different designs
Rely on high speeds for efficiency
Flatback and EBD

 

 

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